GATE Geology & Geophysics Syllabus 2018 pdf


Get details of Geology & Geophysics Syllabus for GATE Exam 2018. GATE 2018 examination will be commenced in the months of February or March of 2018. Before appearing in the examination, each candidates must be aware about the examination pattern.

GATE SyllabusIn this particular article we are providing you GATE exam pattern for Geology and Geophysics branch. You can check out GATE exam pattern for Geology and Geophysics
 from our website. A table showing GATE paper pattern for Geology and Geophysics
 is given below. In this article one can check for GATE Geology & Geophysics Syllabus 2018.

About GATE

Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is an examination that primarily tests the comprehensive understanding of the candidates in various undergraduate subjects in Engineering/Technology/Architecture and post-graduate level subjects in Science. The GATE score of a candidate reflects a relative performance level in a particular subject in the examination across several years.

GATE Geology & Geophysics Syllabus 2018

Here we are providing the detailed syllabus for GATE Geology and Geophysics
for students reference purpose :

Exam SectionMarks Weightage
General Aptitude15% of total marks
Subject questions85% of total marks

About GATE Geology & Geophysics

The Geology and Geophysics deals with the application of scientific principles and methods to the understanding of Earth, the environment, and life on a regional and a planetary scale. Subjects range from the history of Earth and life to present-day environmental processes, integrating the study of Earth’s deep interior, tectonic plates, oceans, atmosphere, climate, land surface, natural resources, and biota.

General Aptitude – GATE Syllabus 2018

General Aptitude (GA) section is common to all the papers. The General Aptitude section is designed to test your language, analytical and quantitative skills. For full details about General Aptitude Syllabus Click on General Aptitude Syllabus

Subject questions (Geology & Geophysics)

Those who are going to appear in GATE examination 2018 with Geology and Geophysics
subject, they are advised to check Syllabus for GATE Geology and Geophysics
 Paper from our website which is available as under:

  • Common Section
  • Geology
  • Geophysics

Common Section

Earth and Planetary system, size, shape, internal structure and composition of the earth; atmosphere and greenhouse effect; isostasy; elements of seismology; physical properties of the interior of the earth; continents and continental processes; physical oceanography; geomagnetism and paleomagnetism, continental drift, plate tectonics.

Weathering; soil formation; action of river, wind, glacier and ocean; earthquakes, volcanism and orogeny.  Basic structural geology, mineralogy and petrology.  Geological time scale and geochronology; stratigraphic principles; major stratigraphic divisions of India.  Engineering properties of rocks and soils.  Ground water geology.  Geological and geographical distribution of ore, coal and petroleum resources of India.

Introduction to remote sensing. Engineering properties of rocks and soils. Ground water geology.

Principles and applications of gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, seismic and radiometric methods of prospecting for oil, mineral and ground water; introductory well logging.


Geomorphic processes and agents; development and evolution of landforms; slope and drainage; processes in deep oceanic and near-shore regions; quantitative and applied geomorphology.

Mechanism of rock deformation; primary and secondary structures; geometry and genesis of folds, faults, joints and unconformities; cleavage, schistosity and lineation; methods of projection; tectonites and their significance; shear zones; superposed folding; basement-cover relationship.

Crystallography – symmetry, forms and twinning; crystal chemistry; optical mineralogy, classification of minerals, diagnostic physical and optical properties of rock – forming minerals.

Cosmic abundance of elements; meteorites; geochemical evolution of the earth; geochemical cycles; distribution of major, minor and trace elements in crust and mantle; elements of geochemical thermodynamics; isotope geochemistry; geochemistry of waters including solution equilibria and water-rock interaction.

Igneous rocks – classification, forms and textures; magmatic differentiation; binary and ternary phase diagrams; major and trace elements as monitors of partial melting and magma evolutionary processes. Sedimentary rocks – texture and structure; sedimentary processes and environments, sedimentary facies, provencance and basin analysis. Metamorphic rocks – structures and textures. Physico-chemical conditions of metamorphism and concept of metamorphic facies, grade and baric types; metamorphism of pelitic, mafic and impure carbonate rocks; role of fluids in metamorphism; metamorphic P-T-t paths and their tectonic significance. Association of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks with tectonic setting. Igneous and metamorphic provinces and important sedimentary basins of India.

Morphology, classification and geological significance of important invertebrates, vertebrates, plant fossils and microfossils.

Principles of Stratigraphy and concepts of correlation – lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy. Indian stratigraphy – Precambrian and Phanerozoic. Overview of Himalayan Geology.

Ore-mineralogy and optical properties of ore minerals; ore forming processes vis-à- vis ore-rock association (magmatic, hydrothermal, sedimentary, supergene and metamorphogenic ores); fluid inclusions as an ore genetic tool. Coal and petroleum geology; marine mineral resources. Prospecting and exploration of economic mineral deposits – sampling, ore reserve estimation, geostatistics, mining methods. Ore dressing and mineral economics. Origin and distribution of mineral, fossil and nuclear fuel deposits in India.

Engineering properties of rocks and soils; rocks as construction materials; role of geology in the construction of engineering structures including dams, tunnels and excavation sites; natural hazards. Ground water geology – exploration, well hydraulics and water quality. Basic principles of remote sensing – energy sources and radiation principles, atmospheric absorption, interaction of energy with earth’s surface, aerial-photo interpretation, multispectral remote sensing in visible, infrared, thermal IR and microwave regions, digital processing of satellite images. GIS – basic concepts, raster and vector mode operations.


The earth as a planet; different motions of the earth;  gravity field of the earth, Clairaut’s theorem, size and shape of earth; geochronology; seismology and interior of the earth;  variation of density, velocity, pressure, temperature, electrical and magnetic properties of the earth; earthquakes-causes and measurements, magnitude and intensity, focal mechanisms, earthquake quantification, source characteristics, seismotectonics and seismic hazards; digital seismographs, geomagnetic field, paleomagnetism; oceanic and continental lithosphere; plate tectonics; heat flow; upper and lower atmospheric phenomena.

Scalar and vector potential fields; Laplace, Maxwell and Helmholtz equations for solution of different types of boundary value problems in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates; Green’s theorem; Image theory; integral equations in potential theory; Eikonal equation and Ray theory.  Basic concepts of forward and inverse problems of geophysics, Ill-posedness of inverse problems.

‘G’ and ‘g’ units of measurement, absolute and relative gravity measurements; Land, airborne, shipborne and bore-hole gravity surveys; various  corrections in gravity data reduction – free air, Bouguer and isostatic anomalies; density estimates of rocks; regional and residual gravity separation; principle of equivalent stratum; upward and downward continuation; wavelength filtering; preparation and analysis of gravity maps; gravity anomalies and their interpretation – anomalies due to geometrical and irregular shaped bodies, depth rules, calculation of mass.

Earth’s magnetic field – elements, origin and units of measurement, magnetic susceptibility of rocks and measurements, magnetometers, Land, airborne and marine magnetic surveys, corrections, preparation of magnetic maps, upward and downward continuation, magnetic anomalies-geometrical shaped bodies, depth estimates, Image processing concepts in processing of magnetic anomaly maps; Interpretation of processed magnetic anomaly data.

Conduction of electricity through rocks, electrical conductivities of metals, non-metals, rock forming minerals and different rocks, concepts of D.C. resistivity measurement, various electrode configurations for resistivity sounding and profiling, application of filter theory, Type-curves over multi-layered structures, Dar-Zarrouck parameters, reduction of layers, coefficient of anisotropy, interpretation of resistivity field data, equivalence and suppression, self potential and its origin, field measurement,  Induced polarization, time and frequency domain IP measurements; interpretation and applications of IP, ground-water exploration, environmental and engineering applications.

Basic concept of EM induction, Origin of electromagnetic field, elliptic polarization, methods of measurement for different source-receiver configuration, components in EM measurements.  Skin-depth, interpretation and applications; earth’s natural electromagnetic field, tellurics, magneto-tellurics; geomagnetic depth sounding principles, electromagnetic profiling, methods of measurement, processing of data and interpretation.  Geological applications including groundwater, mining and hydrocarbon exploration.

Seismic methods of prospecting; Elastic properties of earth materials; Reflection, refraction and CDP surveys; land and marine seismic sources, generation and propagation of elastic waves, velocity – depth models, geophones, hydrophones, recording instruments (DFS), digital formats, field layouts, seismic noises and noise profile analysis, optimum geophone grouping, noise cancellation by shot and geophone arrays, 2D and 3D seismic data acquisition, processing and interpretation; CDP stacking charts, binning, filtering, dip-moveout, static and dynamic corrections,  Digital seismic data processing, seismic deconvolution and migration methods,  attribute analysis, bright and dim spots, seismic stratigraphy, high resolution seismics, VSP, AVO.  Reservoir geophysics.

Geophysical signal processing, sampling theorem, aliasing, Nyquist frequency, Fourier series, periodic waveform,  Fourier and Hilbert transform, Z-transform and wavelet transform; power spectrum, delta function, auto correlation, cross correlation, convolution, deconvolution, principles of digital filters, windows, poles and zeros.

Principles and techniques of geophysical well-logging.  SP, resistivity, induction, gamma ray, neutron, density, sonic, temperature, dip meter, caliper, nuclear magnetic, cement bond logging, micro-logs.  Quantitative evaluation of formations from well logs; well hydraulics and application of geophysical methods for groundwater study;  application of bore hole geophysics in ground water, mineral and oil exploration.

Radioactive methods of prospecting and assaying of minerals (radioactive and non radioactive) deposits, half-life, decay constant, radioactive equilibrium, G M counter, scintillation detector, semiconductor devices, application of radiometric for exploration and radioactive waste disposal.

Geophysical inverse problems; non-uniqueness and stability of solutions; quasi-linear and non-linear methods including Tikhonov’s regularization method, Backus-Gilbert method, simulated annealing, genetic algorithms and artificial neural network.

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